Tomato Ringspot Virus – What To Do For Tomato Ringspot On Plants

Tomato Ringspot Virus – What To Do For Tomato Ringspot On Plants

By: Kristi Waterworth

Plant viruses are scary diseases that may appear seemingly out of nowhere, burn through a selected species or two, then disappear again once those species have died off. Tomato ringspot virus is more insidious, affecting a wide range of plants besides tomatoes that includes woody shrubs, herbaceous perennials, fruit trees, grapevines, vegetables and weeds. Once this virus is active in your landscape, it can be passed between plants of different species, making it difficult to control.

What is Ringspot?

Tomato ringspot virus is caused by a plant virus that’s believed to be transferred from sick plants to healthy ones through pollen and vectored throughout the garden by dagger nematodes. These microscopic roundworms live in the soil, freely moving between plants, albeit slowly. Symptoms of tomato ringspot vary in plants from highly visible, yellow ringspots, mottling or general yellowing of leaves to less obvious symptoms like gradual overall decline and reduced fruit size.

Some plants remain asymptomatic, making it difficult to pinpoint the origin point when this disease appears. Tragically, even asymptomatic plants can transfer the virus in their seeds or pollen. Ringspot virus in plants can even originate in weeds sprouted from infected seeds; If you observe symptoms of tomato ringspot in your garden, it’s important to look at all plants, including weeds.

What to Do for Tomato Ringspot

Tomato ringspot virus in plants is incurable; you can only hope to slow the spread of the infection in your garden. Most gardeners will destroy both infected plants and those symptom-free plants that surround them, since they may infected, but not symptomatic. Caneberries are notorious for showing ringspots in early spring, only for them to disappear by midsummer. Don’t assume because these symptoms clear up that you plant is cured – it’s not and will only serve as a distribution point for the virus.

Cleaning tomato ringspot virus from your garden requires you to rogue out all potential hiding places for the virus, including weeds and trees, then leaving the garden fallow for up to two years. Adult nematodes may vector the virus for up to 8 months, but larvae carry it, too, which is why so much time is needed to guarantee its death. Take great care to ensure that any stumps are completely dead so the virus doesn’t have any plants to host it.

When you replant, choose disease-free stock from reputable nurseries to prevent bringing tomato ringspot virus back into your landscape. Commonly affected landscape plants include:

  • Begonia
  • Geranium
  • Hydrangea
  • Impatiens
  • Iris
  • Peony
  • Petunia
  • Phlox
  • Portulaca
  • Verbena

It may be difficult to completely eradicate ringspot virus in annual plants that are replaced frequently, but by removing any volunteer plants and not saving seeds, you can keep the virus from spreading to more valuable, permanent landscape plants.

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Viruses of backyard fruit

How to identify viruses on backyard fruit

Plants infected with viruses show many different symptoms, depending on the variety, the virus, weather and the stage of infection.

  • Yellow rings, lines or blotches on leaves.
  • Distorted leaves.
  • Crumbly, underdeveloped fruit.
  • Severely stunted plants.
  • In some cases, infected plants show few or no symptoms.

The only way to know exactly which virus is causing the symptoms is to send a sample to the UMN Plant Diagnostic Clinic, where they can identify the virus with lab tests.

Symptoms of tomato ring spot virus

Symptoms on raspberries
  • Small, crumbly raspberries.
  • Fine, yellow lines and yellow rings on leaves.
  • Leaves may or may not show symptoms, depending on the age of the plant and the variety.
  • Tomato ringspot virus badly damages red raspberries, while black raspberries are not affected.
Symptoms on blueberries

Symptoms of raspberry leaf curl virus

  • Slightly yellow, small leaves which curl downward and inward.
  • The disease becomes worse each year.
  • By year four, the plants are stunted and produce no fruit.
  • The symptoms can be confused with injury by the herbicide glyphosate.
  • Raspberry leaf curl is often found on only one plant in a row, while glyphosate injury will usually affect several plants in different amounts.
  • Raspberry leaf curl infects red and black raspberries and less commonly, blackberries.

What Is Ringspot: Information And Symptoms Of Tomato Ringspot Virus In Plants - garden

Bold print in quotes does not mean that the bold print appeared in the original the bold print was added by me (H. Kuska) for emphasis. Information in color indicates that a link is present for further information.

Authors: M. SATTARY, F. Rakhshandehroo, and J. Mozaffari

Back to whether it exists in roses in the U.S. There was an early (1962) paper that reported tomato ringspot virus infection in U.S. roses (Google Scholar does not reach back that far. More recent papers questioned the 1962 results.)

Literature example of which viruses give mosaic symptoms.

"Title: Roses: virus and virus-like diseases.
Author: Lisa-V
Published in: Colture-Protette. 1998, 27: 5 Supplement, 35-38 14 ref.
Language of article: Italian
Abstract: "Notes are given on the viruses and virus-like diseases that are known to affect roses around the world. The most common and widespread virus disease is rose mosaic, associated especially with prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV), apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV), arabis mosaic nepovirus (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus (SLRV), but also with tobacco ringspot nepovirus, tobacco streak ilarvius and tomato ringspot nepovirus. Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and an unidentified closterovirus are found sporadically. The virus-like diseases of unknown aetiology include rose ring pattern, rose flower break, rose streak, rose rosette (or rose witches' broom), rose leaf curl, rose spring dwarf and rose wilt. Other disorders are caused by hormonal imbalances or other types of incompatibility between the graft and the rootstock of unknown aetiology, such as rose bud proliferation, rose dieback (or rose stunt) and frisure. Techniques for diagnosing viruses in roses and methods for their control are described."

The name given to a virus can be misleading. the name given is mainly of historical interest and does not indicate the wide range of plants that that virus can infect. For example, Tomato Ringspot Virus can infect many types of weeds (including dandelion).

TRANSMISSION.

Tomato ringspot virus is in the genus Nepovirus which normally are considered to be nematode transmitted viruses. However there are instances where tomato ringspot virus transmission is thought to be more complex:

"Transmitted by a vector a nematode (and also, non-specifically by insects and mites - Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae, Melanopus sp. Epitrix hirtipennis, Thrips tabaci (possibly nymphs) and Tetranychus sp.) Xiphinema americanum Dorylamidae. Virus lost by the vector when it moults does not multiply in the vector not transmitted congenitally to the progeny of the vector does not require a helper virus for vector transmission transmitted by mechanical inoculation not transmitted by contact between plants transmitted by seed transmitted by pollen to the seed."

Note, the above are possible modes of transmission based on observation with other plants, the actual mode of transmission in roses has not been determined.


Tomato ringspot virus

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Secoviridae. It affects species of cucumber, tobacco, tomato, cowpea, among others. [1] It causes ringspots in tobacco plants and raspberries, yellow bud mosaic in peaches, yellow vein in grapes, and stunted growth in gladiolus and Narcissus. Its range is in the temperate regions of North America, especially where its vector, Xiphinema americanum is present. [2] Along with the adult and larval stages of this nematode, the virus is also spread by seed. This type of infection is more common in strawberries and soybeans than any other susceptible plant. [3] [4]

  1. ^ Teliz, Grogan, and Lownsberry (1966). "Transmission of tomato ringspot, peach yellow- bud mosaic, and grape yellow vein viruses by Xiphinema americanum". Phytopathology. 56: 658–63. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^
  3. Frazier, Yarwood, and Gold (1961). "Yellow-bud virus endemic along California coast". Plant Disease Reporter. 45: 649. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^
  5. "Dual transmission of tobacco ringspot virus and tomato ringspot virus by Xiphineina umeriianum". Phytopathology. 57: 535–537.
  6. ^
  7. Mellor and Stace-Smith (1963). "Reaction of strawberry to a ringspot virus from raspberry". Canadian Journal of Botany. 41 (6): 865–870. doi:10.1139/b63-070. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)

Is currently the most common tospovirus found in greenhouses. INSV was described as a distinct virus in the tospovirus group in 1991. It is related to another tospovirus called tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Both viruses have a very wide host range that includes many popular ornamentals. Symptoms can include necrotic streaks, spots, rings and lines on leaves and stems, distorted flowers, stems and leaves, general stunting and bud drop. Black, brown, reddish, or yellowish concentric rings, although not always present, are also symptoms of virus infection. Both viruses are transmitted by at least five species of thrips. Western flower thrips is currently the most common species on ornamentals. Only immature larval thrips can acquire the virus from an infected plant, and are then able to transmit the virus for the life of the thrips (12-44 days) as larvae and adults. Virus spread occurs by movement of infected thrips to healthy plants by crawling, jumping or on air currents within greenhouses or fields. Infected stock plants used for propagation and weeds that remain between crop cycles are possible sources of virus. To date, plants infected with INSV include aconitum, aquilegia, campanula, coreopsis, delphinium, dianthus, echinacea, gallardia, hebe, hosta, impatiens, lamium, lathyrus, lobelia, malva, monarda, peony, phlox, polemonium, primula, ranuculus, senecio, verbena, and annual vinca.


Impatiens necrotic spot virus


What Is Ringspot: Information And Symptoms Of Tomato Ringspot Virus In Plants - garden

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Crop Improvement and Protection Research: Salinas, CA

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At this Location

Title: Tomato ring spot virus

Interpretive Summary: Tomato ringspot disease, caused by Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), is associated with the presence of dagger nematodes, the major vectors of Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV). This virus is endemic and widely distributed in North America, as well as many parts of the world. Infected plants develop yellow mosaic symptoms, shortened internodes, proliferation of flower buds, and prominent ring spots on the discolored fruits, and squash squash plants (Cucurbita pepo) are more severely affected than other cucurbits. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Tobacco ringspot virus. ToRSV belongs to the genus Nepovirus within the family Secoviridae, and is characterized by isometric particles about 28 nm in diameter, encapsidating a single-stranded RNA genome composed of two virus particles. Efficient detection can be achieved using either commercially available serological methods as well as by molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR. The host range of ToRSV is very wide and includes plants in more than 35 botanical families, including woody and herbaceous species. The virus is easily transmitted by mechanical means and grafting, by pollen in some hosts, but its primary vectors are dagger nematodes (Xiphinema sp.). These nematodes can transmit the virus with periods as short as an hour. ToRSV can be a problem in land covered with weeds and in soils that were previously uncultivated for several years. Intense cultivation and eradication of weeds can drastically reduce the presence of the virus in the vectors. No resistant cultivars of cucumber, melon, or watermelon are currently available. In squash, resistance has been identified in a number of wild Cucurbita spp. Some accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) are also resistant.

Technical Abstract: Tomato ringspot disease, caused by Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), is associated with the presence of dagger nematodes, the major vectors of Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV). This virus is endemic and widely distributed in North America, as well as many parts of the world. Infected plants develop yellow mosaic symptoms, shortened internodes, proliferation of flower buds, and prominent ring spots on the discolored fruits, and squash squash plants (Cucurbita pepo) are more severely affected than other cucurbits. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Tobacco ringspot virus. ToRSV belongs to the genus Nepovirus within the family Secoviridae, and is characterized by isometric particles about 28 nm in diameter, encapsidating a single-stranded RNA genome composed of two virus particles. Efficient detection can be achieved using either commercially available serological methods as well as by molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR. The host range of ToRSV is very wide and includes plants in more than 35 botanical families, including woody and herbaceous species. The virus is easily transmitted by mechanical means and grafting, by pollen in some hosts, but its primary vectors are dagger nematodes (Xiphinema sp.). These nematodes can transmit the virus with periods as short as an hour. ToRSV can be a problem in land covered with weeds and in soils that were previously uncultivated for several years. Intense cultivation and eradication of weeds can drastically reduce the presence of the virus in the vectors. No resistant cultivars of cucumber, melon, or watermelon are currently available. In squash, resistance has been identified in a number of wild Cucurbita spp. Some accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) are also resistant.


Cherry (Prunus spp.)-Eola Rasp Leaf (Yellow Bud Mosaic)

Leaf enations on small leaves of Bing cherry. Enations (small epidermal outgrowths) develop on the underside of these leaves adjacent to the midrib.

Unlike other strains of TomRSV, trunks may develop only scattered pockets of shallow pits in the vascular cambium area.

Note that most of this tree has rosetting (compressed) shoots while one branch to the right side has normal shoot and leaf growth. Tree was positive when testing for both ToRSV and PDV.

Cause Eola rasp leaf (also known as Peach yellow bud mosaic or the yellow bud mosaic strain of Tomato ringspot virus ) is vectored by the dagger nematode. The disease has been found on 'Royal Ann' in the Willamette Valley, 'Rainer' in The Dalles and on 'Bing' in Hood River and The Dalles. Mahaleb or Mazzard rootstock can become infected. Peach and almond also show symptoms while apricot is not seriously damaged (but can still be a reservoir of this virus strain). Many weeds can also be hosts of the virus. Disease spread in the orchard has been slow. Trees become unproductive.

Symptoms Declining trees have a bare-limb appearance that starts in the lower portion of the tree and moves upward, year after year, as spurs twigs and small branches die. Many shoots on affected limbs have a rosetted appearance. Spur leaves are small with prominent, whitish secondary veins that branch off from the midrib at right angles. Enations (small epidermal outgrowths) develop on the underside of these leaves adjacent to the midrib. In contrast to rasp leaf disease, enations are smaller and fewer and caused less leaf distortion. Along with enations, Royal Ann leaves develop dense tomentose areas between twisted distorted veins. Unlike other strains of TomRSV, trunks may develop only scattered pockets of shallow pits in the vascular cambium area.

  • Remove diseased trees.
  • Pre-plant soil fumigation to manage dagger nematode vectors.
  • Plant certified, virus-tested (and found to be free of all known viruses) nursery stock.

References Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T., and Jelkmann, W. 2011. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits. St. Paul, MN: APS Press.


Watch the video: Tomato Plant Experiment - Over and Under Watering